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TATVA GYAN

From the very beginning human beings are constantly trying to find answer to his few questions like -
            What is this Universe like?
            Who am I and from where have I come and where I have to go?
            What is my relation to the God almighty?
            What is this feeling of happiness and sadness?
            Why is there a cycle of life and death?
            When does this cycle of birth and re-birth ends (complete Moksh)?


According to Jainisim an answer to all the above queries of man can be obtained by the knowledge of Nine Tattvas (fundamentals). Tattva, according to Jainism is Truth, which never dies, always remains. Jainisim accepts the two basic fundamentals - (Cetana or Jiva) and (Acectana or Ajiva). These two fundamentals are beginless and independent. They are further elaborated in nine parts.

Nine Tattvas

1. Jiva- Tattva :- (soul or the living substance) - A living soul is Jiva. Jiva is associated with mind, body, soul and senses. A thing which has capacity to grow. A figure filled with desires and emotions is Jiva, one who enjoys wordly things, who is a doer and collector of Karmas and also the enjoyer of the fruits of his activities. Which can understand happiness and feel sadness that is jiva. All in all, Jiva is associated with a lively body made up of 5 sences – taste, smell, body, sight and touch.

 2. Ajiva Tattva :- (Non - living substances) - A substance  which does  not  have consciousness, which does not have knowledge of what is bad or what is good, that is Ajva Tattva or a non - living substance. It has no life. Things like stone, gold, silver, diamond, time (kaal), sky etc are Ajiv.

 Ajiva Tattva are further classified as

 a)         Dharma (medium of movement) - In Jainisim, Dharma means something which supports movement or helps in moving. Moving or movement means an act of going from place to another, and something which helps in this process is Dharma. For example, Water does not forces a fish to swim, but when a fish wants to move from one place to another, it needs water as its medium of motion. Similary when man wants to make a move from earth to heaven, he needs help of Dharma.
 b)         Adharma (Medium of Rest) - as some medium is required for motion, similarly something else is required for rest (or bringing a thing into stationary position). If ‘Dharma’ helps in motion ‘Adharma’ helps things to come to rest. With adharam the movement towards salvation stops and person cannot attain Moksh.
 c)         Pudgala (matter) - In scientific terms Pudgala is called ‘matter’ or ‘Every’. This term ‘Pudgala’ is only used in Jainisim and anywhere else. According to jain philosophy Pudgala is something that can be seen touched, tasted and smelled.
 (d)        Akash (space) - An empty area which gives room to jiva, ajiva, Pudgala and time is Akash or space. Akash is further understand in two parts-Lokakash (world where we live) and Aalok (outer space). Akash is that substance which is infinite, permanent and immaterial.
 (e)       Kaal (Time) - According to Jainisim, some which helps things to change themselves is called Kaal. If a thing has an ability to change itself (to become new or old) then Kaal helps it perform the action.

 3.        Punya Tattva (Good acts or merits) - Goods acts which have developed, which give happiness, comfort and peace to jiva is Punya tattva. When a person has feeling for others, when he desires to serve the poor and needy, give charity and alms he collects good Karmas. This is 'punya tattva’. If a person continues the tradition of punya, for example, if due to his past good deeds he has got all the riches and fortunes in his present life and further Continues with good deeds, such punya is called ‘Punyanibandhni Punya’. But if Due to his past actions person has got all fortunes in present birth and does all bad deeds, keeps wrong thoughts then his all Punya Karmas are known as ‘Papnibandhi Punya’.

In simple words giving food to those who are hungry, giving shelter to those without house to be polite and generous, to keep high thoughts and to always be at the side of truth, do good deeds and bow towards the God almighty all this is called Punya Tattva.

4. Paap Tattva  (Bad acts or demerits) - Bad acts which give trouble to any other     body is Paap Tattva. Performing anything which gives any harm to even a smallest creature is paap. If a soul wants to achieve ‘Moksha’ then destroying Paap Tattva is must which includes voilence, lie, stealing, smuggling, anger, pride, money, greed, jealously, hatred, backbiting, fraud etc. Anybody who follows the above mentioned   things, unknowingly, makes his way for hell.

In present ways of life it is difficult to live without saying a lie, without anger, without backbiting etc, but this is also true that only by leaving all these we can find ourselves at the doors of heaven otherwise hell will remain our destiny.

5. Aasrava Tattva (Influx of Karma matter into soul) - Aasrava means coming in. All the actions, deeds or thoughts which give rise to Karmas and through which Karmas come in and attach with the soul is Aasrana Tattva.

6. Samrara (Btopping of Asarva)- To check the flowing of Karmas isSamvara Samvara is a process to counter or to stop Aasarva. To stop anger, jealously , pride, greed etc which are the major pollutants of our soul is ‘Samvara’ Samvara can be successfully practiced through Gupti (control), Samiti (setting limits), Dharma (victory over anger), meditation, tolerence and good conduct. So, if a person even tries not be angry, not say bad words to others, not to have feeling of revenge or jealously against others not to be greedy etc. We can stop the inflow of bad Karmas to a great extent and this is ‘Samvara’,

7. Nirjara Tattva (Gradual removal of Karmic matter) - Sanvara Tattva is the stoppage
to the inflow of water into the tank but Nirjara tattva is the cleaning up of already filled water of the tank. If Samvara is the process of stopping the coming in of new Karmas and attaching with soul ‘nirjara’ is destroying of already attached Karmas.

Nirjara is of two kinds: -

a)     Sakama Nirjara (voluntary Nirjara): - Nirjara which is brought about by all self effort, Self sacrifices, fasting, Dharmas, thoughts and practices is ‘Sakama Nirjara’.
b)     Akama Nirjara (Voluntary Nirhara): - Nirjara which is brought about by all the least knowledge of the process, without having proper knowledge of the process. It may be a result of the fruits of past Karmas is Akama Nirjara.
8.     Bandha Tattva (tie up or bondage): - A bond or relationship between two things is called bandh. In terms of Dharma – a relationship of ‘Karmas’ with soul or ‘Atma’ is bandh tattva. According to Jainisim bandh is that stage where Karmas get attach with ‘Aatma’ or soul.
a)     Bandha can be classified as ‘Dravya bandh’ or the bondage of Karmas through activities of material beings with the soul. Dravyabandhi or the Bondage of subtances.
b)     Bhavabandh, or in other words is also known as bondage of emotions, desire, infatuation etc. and other emotional aspects.

 
Bondage is thus described into four different categories.

1)     Prakrti-bandhi or natural bondage: - Connected with our soul, there are some natural factors like, for example some factors stop the inflow of knowledge some decide upon the limit of age, how much life a particular being has, how long will he live or not. These are called Prakrti bandh or natural bondage.
2)     Stithi Bandhi (Situational bondage): - Karmas attached with the soul have a limit of time. This bandh decides as to how much long time will these karmas be attached with the soul.
3)      Anubhag bandh or emotional bandh: - The power that decides as to when the fruits of the Karmas be beared or tasted is called Anubhag Bandh.
4)     Pradesh bandh or violation bondage:- The meter which tells the measure of taken in Karmas is known as Pradesh bandh.
 
9. Moksh Salvation - The last among the nine Tattva is the Moksh. When our soul gets purified, when all the Karmas get detached from the soul, this is known as Moksh or state of salvation. When the Karmas are fully destroyed, the Atma or the soul has its true development, which includes infinite knowledge, infinite vision, infinite power and infinite excellence.

The true development of soul is only possible when the soul becomes independent of all the Karmas attached with it, this is called ‘moksh’. In the state of moksh, soul gets ‘Keval Gyan’ (the ultimate knowledge).

Methods by which we can attain moksh are
1)      Right Belief
2)      Right Knowledge
3)      Right Conduct

Jainisim gives importance to qualities and not the person. Any person no matter to which caste he belongs, which family he comes from, what sex he has, what clothes he is wearing can have moksh by following the above methods.

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