the very beginning human beings are constantly trying to find
answer to his few questions like -
What is this Universe like?
Who am I and from where have I come and where I have to go?
What is my relation to the God almighty?
What is this feeling of happiness and sadness?
Why is there a cycle of life and death?
When does this cycle of birth and re-birth ends (complete
According to Jainisim an answer to all the above queries of
man can be obtained by the knowledge of Nine Tattvas (fundamentals).
Tattva, according to Jainism is Truth, which never dies, always
remains. Jainisim accepts the two basic fundamentals - (Cetana
or Jiva) and (Acectana or Ajiva). These two fundamentals are
beginless and independent. They are further elaborated in
1. Jiva- Tattva :- (soul
or the living substance) - A living soul is Jiva. Jiva is
associated with mind, body, soul and senses. A thing which
has capacity to grow. A figure filled with desires and emotions
is Jiva, one who enjoys wordly things, who is a doer and collector
of Karmas and also the enjoyer of the fruits of his activities. Which
can understand happiness and feel sadness that is jiva. All
in all, Jiva is associated with a lively body made up of 5
sences taste, smell, body, sight and touch.
2. Ajiva Tattva :-
(Non - living substances) - A substance which does
not have consciousness, which does not have knowledge
of what is bad or what is good, that is Ajva Tattva or a non
- living substance. It has no life. Things like stone, gold,
silver, diamond, time (kaal), sky etc are Ajiv.
Ajiva Tattva are further classified as
(medium of movement) - In Jainisim, Dharma means something
which supports movement or helps in moving. Moving or movement
means an act of going from place to another, and something
which helps in this process is Dharma. For example, Water
does not forces a fish to swim, but when a fish wants to move
from one place to another, it needs water as its medium of
motion. Similary when man wants to make a move from earth
to heaven, he needs help of Dharma.
(Medium of Rest) - as some medium is required for motion,
similarly something else is required for rest (or bringing
a thing into stationary position). If Dharma helps
in motion Adharma helps things to come to rest.
With adharam the movement towards salvation stops and person
cannot attain Moksh.
(matter) - In scientific terms Pudgala is called matter
or Every. This term Pudgala is only
used in Jainisim and anywhere else. According to jain philosophy
Pudgala is something that can be seen touched, tasted and
(space) - An empty area which gives room to jiva, ajiva,
Pudgala and time is Akash or space. Akash is further understand
in two parts-Lokakash (world where we live) and Aalok (outer
space). Akash is that substance which is infinite, permanent
(Time) - According to Jainisim, some which helps things
to change themselves is called Kaal. If a thing has an ability
to change itself (to become new or old) then Kaal helps it
perform the action.
Tattva (Good acts or merits) - Goods acts which have developed,
which give happiness, comfort and peace to jiva is Punya tattva.
When a person has feeling for others, when he desires to serve
the poor and needy, give charity and alms he collects good
Karmas. This is 'punya tattva. If a person continues
the tradition of punya, for example, if due to his past good
deeds he has got all the riches and fortunes in his present
life and further Continues with good deeds, such punya is
called Punyanibandhni Punya. But if Due to his
past actions person has got all fortunes in present birth
and does all bad deeds, keeps wrong thoughts then his all
Punya Karmas are known as Papnibandhi Punya.
In simple words giving food to those who are hungry, giving
shelter to those without house to be polite and generous,
to keep high thoughts and to always be at the side of truth,
do good deeds and bow towards the God almighty all this is
called Punya Tattva.
4. Paap Tattva (Bad acts
or demerits) - Bad acts which give trouble to any
other body is Paap Tattva. Performing
anything which gives any harm to even a smallest creature
is paap. If a soul wants to achieve Moksha then
destroying Paap Tattva is must which includes voilence, lie,
stealing, smuggling, anger, pride, money, greed, jealously,
hatred, backbiting, fraud etc. Anybody who follows the above
mentioned things, unknowingly, makes his way for
In present ways of life it is difficult to live without saying
a lie, without anger, without backbiting etc, but this is
also true that only by leaving all these we can find ourselves
at the doors of heaven otherwise hell will remain our destiny.
5. Aasrava Tattva (Influx of
Karma matter into soul) - Aasrava means coming
in. All the actions, deeds or thoughts which give rise to
Karmas and through which Karmas come in and attach with the
soul is Aasrana Tattva.
6. Samrara (Btopping of Asarva)-
To check the flowing of Karmas isSamvara Samvara is a process
to counter or to stop Aasarva. To stop anger, jealously ,
pride, greed etc which are the major pollutants of our soul
is Samvara Samvara can be successfully practiced
through Gupti (control), Samiti (setting limits), Dharma (victory
over anger), meditation, tolerence and good conduct. So, if
a person even tries not be angry, not say bad words to others,
not to have feeling of revenge or jealously against others
not to be greedy etc. We can stop the inflow of bad Karmas
to a great extent and this is Samvara,
7. Nirjara Tattva (Gradual removal
of Karmic matter) - Sanvara Tattva is the stoppage
to the inflow of water into the tank but Nirjara tattva is
the cleaning up of already filled water of the tank. If Samvara
is the process of stopping the coming in of new Karmas and
attaching with soul nirjara is destroying of already
Nirjara is of two kinds: -
a) Sakama Nirjara (voluntary
Nirjara): - Nirjara which is brought about by all self
effort, Self sacrifices, fasting, Dharmas, thoughts and practices
is Sakama Nirjara.
b) Akama Nirjara (Voluntary
Nirhara): - Nirjara which is brought about by all the
least knowledge of the process, without having proper knowledge
of the process. It may be a result of the fruits of past Karmas
is Akama Nirjara.
8. Bandha Tattva (tie up or
bondage): - A bond or relationship between two things
is called bandh. In terms of Dharma a relationship
of Karmas with soul or Atma is bandh
tattva. According to Jainisim bandh is that stage where Karmas
get attach with Aatma or soul.
a) Bandha can be classified
as Dravya bandh or the bondage of Karmas through
activities of material beings with the soul. Dravyabandhi
or the Bondage of subtances.
b) Bhavabandh, or in other words
is also known as bondage of emotions, desire, infatuation
etc. and other emotional aspects.
Bondage is thus described into four different categories.
1) Prakrti-bandhi or natural
bondage: - Connected with our soul, there are some natural
factors like, for example some factors stop the inflow of
knowledge some decide upon the limit of age, how much life
a particular being has, how long will he live or not. These
are called Prakrti bandh or natural bondage.
2) Stithi Bandhi (Situational
bondage): - Karmas attached with the soul have a limit
of time. This bandh decides as to how much long time will
these karmas be attached with the soul.
3) Anubhag bandh or
emotional bandh: - The power that decides as to when the
fruits of the Karmas be beared or tasted is called Anubhag
4) Pradesh bandh or violation
bondage:- The meter which tells the measure of taken in
Karmas is known as Pradesh bandh.
9. Moksh Salvation - The last among the nine Tattva
is the Moksh. When our soul gets purified, when all the Karmas
get detached from the soul, this is known as Moksh or state
of salvation. When the Karmas are fully destroyed, the Atma
or the soul has its true development, which includes infinite
knowledge, infinite vision, infinite power and infinite excellence.
The true development of soul is only possible when the soul
becomes independent of all the Karmas attached with it, this
is called moksh. In the state of moksh, soul gets
Keval Gyan (the ultimate knowledge).
Methods by which we can attain moksh are
1) Right Belief
2) Right Knowledge
3) Right Conduct
Jainisim gives importance to qualities and not the person.
Any person no matter to which caste he belongs, which family
he comes from, what sex he has, what clothes he is wearing
can have moksh by following the above methods.